Exposed Mature Women
However, while older people are quite well protected against poverty, there are clear differences between men and women across much of the EU. The figure below illustrates these gender differences for different age groups. A value above zero in the figure indicates a higher share of women threatened by poverty or social exclusion as compared to men in the same age group.
exposed mature women
In contrast, when looking at women above age 65, a substantially higher risk of poverty or social exclusion than for their male counterparts becomes apparent. For the EU as a whole, this gender gap amounts to more than four percentage points for people between age 65 and 74, and increases to over six percentage points for those above age 75.
The often substantial gender gaps in pensions reflect the gender gaps in remuneration, working hours and duration of working lives that women faced during their working lives. Pay differences may be rooted in education and skills levels, as well as various forms of gender segregation and discrimination. Household and caring duties relating to children and frail older relatives fall mostly upon women who experience more career interruptions and part time work than men as a result. Finally, the statutory retirement age for women is still lower than that of men in some pension systems, which leads to shorter contributory periods and can result in lower benefits.
Further, the fact that older women often live alone tend to exacerbate their precarious economic situation as they cannot share costs which are not fully proportionate to household size (e.g., housing, insurance, electricity). 40 percent of women above age 65 live in a single household in the EU compared to only 19 percent of elderly men.
Nevertheless, women continue to have low-paid jobs, to work part-time and to interrupt their careers for reasons of care duties. Thus gender differences in old age poverty will not disappear in the foreseeable future; this would require much more determined efforts to achieve equal opportunities for women and men with regard to employment and professional careers.
The only way to tell for sure that someone has hypothermia is to use a special thermometer that can read very low body temperatures. Most hospitals have these thermometers. In the emergency room, doctors will warm the person's body from inside out. For example, they may give the person warm fluids directly by using an IV. Recovery depends on how long the person was exposed to the cold and his or her general health.
The number of pigment-containing cells (melanocytes) decreases. The remaining melanocytes increase in size. Aging skin looks thinner, paler, and clear (translucent). Pigmented spots including age spots or "liver spots" may appear in sun-exposed areas. The medical term for these areas is lentigos.
Changes in the connective tissue reduce the skin's strength and elasticity. This is known as elastosis. It is more noticeable in sun-exposed areas (solar elastosis). Elastosis produces the leathery, weather-beaten appearance common to farmers, sailors, and others who spend a large amount of time outdoors.
Growths such as skin tags, warts, brown rough patches (seborrheic keratoses), and other blemishes are more common in older people. Also common are pinkish rough patches (actinic keratosis) which have a small chance of becoming a skin cancer. Skin cancers are also common and usually located in sun-exposed areas.
Although our understanding of HPV is incomplete, relatively more is known about early events (at the time of initial infection) and late events (the malignancies associated with oncogenic HPV), compared with the long period between initial infection and the diagnosis of cervical cancer. The prevalence of HPV infection peaks in the early 20s, and after a gradual decline, a second peak in HPV prevalence occurs in the fifth or sixth decades of life in North American, European, and Central/South American women . Cervical cancer, essentially all of which is caused by infection with oncogenic HPV types, also peaks around the fifth or sixth decades of life.
What is the importance of HPV reactivation? What is the cause of reactivation? Among immunosuppressed individuals, oncogenic HPV present for many years at very low levels may be responsible for the high rate of HPV-related disease. The high rate of disease among these individuals may result from reactivation of low-level persistent HPV as immunity wanes . What about the phenomenon known as immunosenescence, which involves a reduction in many aspects of immune system function and naturally occurs during the aging process? Immunosenescence leading to reactivation of HPV has been hypothesized as an explanation for higher prevalence proportions among older women .
Men also experience a decline in their baby-making ability as they get older, but this fall in fertility tends to start later and occur much more slowly than in women. The fertility rate for men tends to begin falling around the age of 40-45 years old.
In 2017, however, the average age of mothers giving birth in all OECD countries was 30. Just under half (44%) of all live births in England and Wales in the same year were to mothers aged 30 while the average age of women giving birth to their first child in South Korea was 31.
While such crude calculations do not take the natural variability that can exist between women into account, or the time windows during which ovaries might release more than one egg in a month, or months in which no egg is released at all, they can give a rough estimate of just how long the female fertility timeline can be.
But this is still only one half of the equation. Older fathers also bring additional health risks for their children. Babies with older fathers are more likely to be born prematurely, have a lower birth weight and higher risk of seizures. Some studies have also linked increasing paternal age to a greater risk of conditions such as autism and ADHD where the father is over the age of 40, but the evidence remains inconsistent.
The significant advances in reproductive medicine over the past decades have greatly increased the safety, success, accessibility and affordability of artificial reproductive techniques. Approximately 230 babies are born in the UK each year to women aged 50 and over while 9% of all first-time mothers in the US were aged above 35 in 2014.
But as we have seen, these techniques are still limited to a degree by the age of the egg. This is, not least, because of the effects of ageing on the DNA, but also because older eggs have been exposed to environmental toxins for a longer amount of time. It is possible, of course, for women to undergo IVF using a donated egg from a younger woman. Nearly all fertility clinics across the world now also offer women an option to store their eggs, frozen in time, until she is ready for them to be thawed, fertilised and transplanted into her womb.
A. HPV genotype distribution among 56 hc2 high-risk HPV positive specimens B. Number of HPV genotypes present among 56 hc2 high-risk HPV positive specimens Note: Weighted percentages underestimate population prevalences because high-risk HPV negative women were not genotyped. Standard errors are not shown because they are based on fewer than 8 variance strata with observations in both primary sampling units. hc2, probe hybridization and signal amplification; HPV, Human papillomavirus
Age spots, which are sometimes called liver spots or solar lentigines, happen after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, says dermatologist Amy Kassouf, MD. They can be tan, brown or black, vary in size and usually appear on the areas most exposed to the sun such as the face, hands, shoulders and arms.
Infectious diseases account for one third of all deaths in people 65 years and older. Early detection is more difficult in the elderly because the typical signs and symptoms, such as fever and leukocytosis, are frequently absent. A change in mental status or decline in function may be the only presenting problem in an older patient with an infection. An estimated 90 percent of deaths resulting from pneumonia occur in people 65 years and older. Mortality resulting from influenza also occurs primarily in the elderly. Urinary tract infections are the most common cause of bacteremia in older adults. Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs frequently in the elderly; however, antibiotic treatment does not appear to be efficacious. The recent rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus) is a particular problem in the elderly because they are exposed to infections at higher rates in hospital and institutional settings. Treatment of colonization and active infection is problematic; strict adherence to hygiene practices is necessary to prevent the spread of resistant organisms.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most frequent bacterial infection and the most common source of bacteremia in older adults.22 Table 64 compares UTI characteristics in older and younger patients. Factors that predispose older adults to UTIs include the use of urethral or condom catheters, and neurogenic bladders with increased residual urine. Contributing factors specific to gender include prostate enlargement in men, an increase in vaginal pH, vaginal atrophy that is due to postmenopausal estrogen depletion, and incomplete emptying of the bladder in women. These factors provide the opportunity for bacterial colonization and are likely to contribute to the higher rates of asymptomatic bacteriuria and UTIs in the elderly.23
Treatment for UTIs should be directed at the organism identified by Gram stain and culture. Unfortunately, polymicrobial infections occur in about 30 percent of patients and more often if the UTI is related to the use of a catheter.24 In these patients, use of a broad-spectrum antibiotic may be necessary. In general, seven days is an adequate duration of therapy in older women and 14 days in older men. The duration of therapy is routinely doubled for infections considered to be serious.24 041b061a72