Cold War Command : The Dramatic Story Of A Nucl...
Rear-Admiral Arthur Wilson VC, the Controller of the Royal Navy, has gone down in history as the officer who claimed in 1901 "[Submarines are] underhand, unfair, and damned un-English. ... treat all submarines as pirates in wartime ... and hang all crews," In fact he had advocated the purchase of submarines the year before, and he was actually expressing a desire to continue the policy of discouraging foreign powers from building submarines while the Royal Navy developed its own in secret. The legend goes that in response to these top secret remarks of Wilson's made 13 years earlier Lieutenant-Commander (later Admiral Sir) Max Horton first flew the Jolly Roger on return to port after sinking the German cruiser Hela and the destroyer S-116 in 1914 while in command of the E-class submarine E9.
Cold war command : the dramatic story of a nucl...
In recognition of her pioneering role in the practical use of nuclear power, Nautilus was designated a National Historic Landmark by the Secretary of the Interior on 20 May 1982. Following an extensive historic ship conversion at Mare Island, the submarine was towed to Groton, arriving on 6 July 1985. There, on 11 April 1986, 86 years to the day after the establishment of the U.S. Submarine Force, historic ship Nautilus and the Submarine Force Museum opened to the public as the first exhibit of its kind in the world. The unique museum ship continues to serve as a dramatic link in both Cold War-era history and the birth of the nuclear age.
Established Oct. 1, 2002, USSTRATCOM has made many contributions to the national defense. For example, it has provided intelligence, planning and cyber support to coalition forces in Afghanistan and Iraq. It monitors orbiting satellites and space debris, allowing high-value spacecraft like the International Space Station to maneuver and avoid collision. It has fielded systems to provide limited protection against ballistic missile attack. In February 2008, it destroyed a satellite that was about to re-enter the earth's atmosphere. In 2011, it supported U.S. Africa Command's operations against Libya in a variety of ways, including long-range conventional strikes and ISR. Today's USSTRATCOM is the product of an evolution from a nuclear command to a strategic one in the broadest sense-from an organization prepared to employ thermonuclear weapons in a general war (which it existed to prevent) to a command that creates a variety of global strategic effects day to day in support of national objectives. Its rich history draws on important contributions from many different organizations stretching back to World War II.
On June 1, 1992, SAC and the JSTPS were replaced by a new unified command, USSTRATCOM. In addition to the dramatic changes in the global landscape associated with the end of the Cold War, changes in the structure of the DoD stemming from the 1986 "Goldwater-Nichols Act" led national leaders to favor a single command responsible for all strategic nuclear forces. The new command's principal mission was to deter military attack, especially nuclear attack, on the United States and its allies and, if deterrence failed, to employ nuclear forces.
While the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty had created Allies, it had not created a military structure that could effectively coordinate their actions. This changed when growing worries about Soviet intentions culminated in the Soviet detonation of an atomic bomb in 1949 and in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. The effect upon the Alliance was dramatic. NATO soon gained a consolidated command structure with a military Headquarters based in the Parisian suburb of Rocquencourt, near Versailles. This was Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, or SHAPE, with US General Dwight D. Eisenhower as the first Supreme Allied Commander Europe, or SACEUR. Soon afterward, the Allies established a permanent civilian secretariat in Paris, and named NATO's first Secretary General, Lord Ismay of the United Kingdom.
THE arms control changes President Bush laid out last week represent some of the most profound alterations in United States nuclear-weapons policy since atomic warheads were first bolted to the top of ballistic missiles.Yet with some of the moves the White House is seizing the opportunity to take credit for the unavoidable. Take Mr. Bush's pledge to bring battlefield nuclear arms back to US depots: The rationale for keeping these short-range weapons in Europe has collapsed along with the Soviet threat, and political and budget pressures have already been building for their removal. In Washington, Bush's sudden proposals were also widely seen as an attempt to preempt any wider debate about cutting nuclear forces and as a means to promote the Pentagon's endangered B-2 bomber and the controversial Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). "The administration is trying to get out ahead of everyone on what has been a dramatic change in peoples' perceptions of our past adversary," says Stan Norris, a nuclear expert at the Natural Resources Defense Council. "I give them high marks here. They are seizing an opportune moment to do things which have long been proposed." The president called on the Soviet Union to match the boldness of his moves, and the initial response seemed positive. Soviet President Gorbachev on Saturday praised Bush and said he would reciprocate "warhead for warhead." But as of this writing no detailed Soviet response had been released (see story, Page 3). One of the most sweeping points of President Bush's new nuclear plan was his announcement that the US would unilaterally withdraw and destroy all land-based short-range tactical nuclear weapons based in Europe and South Korea. Bush said he would similarly order withdrawal of all tactical nuclear weapons from Navy ships and submarines - including some 350 modern Tomahawk nuclear-tipped cruise missiles. Tactical nuclear weapons have been an integral part of US military contingency plans since the dawn of the atomic age. But the increasing accuracy and lethality of conventional bombs and shells has made this weapon class somewhat obsolete, and the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Eastern Europe has eliminated the massed echelons of armored units that would have been their primary targets. Still, the president was careful to emphasize that the US would retain tactical nuclear bombs carried on aircraft.
President Delivers Commencement Address at the United States Military Academy at West PointMitchie StadiumUnited States Military Academy at West PointWest Point, New York President's Remarks view THE PRESIDENT:Thank you for the warm welcome. General Lennox,Secretary Harvey, members of the United States Congress, Academy staffand faculty, distinguished guests, proud family, and, most importantly,the Class of 2006. (Applause.)On the way in, General Lennox showed me what you did to his car.(Laughter.) I told him, "That's a fine looking vehicle -- (laughter) --but you need to stay away from Marine One." (Laughter.)I see a lot of Gray Hogs out there -- a few Century Men, too.During your four years at this Academy, I'm told there are about 18,000opportunities to be late for class, drill, march, or inspection -- andmany of you availed yourselves of those opportunities.(Laughter.)Others got written up just for having bad haircuts. No matter whatreason you got slugged, help is on the way. (Applause.) In keepingwith longstanding tradition, I hereby absolve all cadets who are onrestriction for minor conduct offenses. I leave it to General Lennox todefine exactly what "minor" means. (Laughter.)It's a privilege to stand before the future leaders of the United StatesArmy. (Applause.) You have worked hard to get to this moment. Yousurvived the hardest Beast on record -- the "best summer of your lives"in Buckistan -- countless hours in the House of Pane. In four years,you've been transformed from "bean-heads" to "yuks," to "cows," and"Firsties." And today you will become proud officers of the greatestArmy in the history of the world. (Applause.)Your teachers are proudof you; your parents are proud of you; and so is yourCommander-in-Chief. Congratulations on a fantastic achievement.(Applause.)This Academy has shaped your minds and bodies for the challenges thatlie ahead. You worked hard in the classroom and on the playing field toprepare for the rigors of combat. One cadet described the West Pointattitude this way: "First I'll beat Navy and Air Force, and then I'llbeat the enemies of freedom on the battlefield."The field of battle is where your degree and commission will take you.This is the first class to arrive at West Point after the attacks ofSeptember the 11th, 2001. Each of you came here in a time of war,knowing all the risks and dangers that come with wearing our nation'suniform. And I want to thank you for your patriotism, your devotion toduty, your courageous decision to serve. America is grateful and proudof the men and women of West Point. (Applause.)The reality of war has surrounded you since your first moments at thisAcademy. More than 50 of your fellow cadets here at West Point havealready seen combat in Afghanistan and Iraq. And 34 times since yourclass arrived, you have observed a moment of silence in Washington Hallto honor a former cadet fallen in the war on terror. Each loss isheartbreaking -- and each loss has made you even more determined to pickup their mantle, to carry on their fight, and to achieve victory. Wewill honor the memory of these brave souls. We will finish the task forwhich they gave their lives. We will complete the mission. (Applause.)West Point has adapted to prepare you for the war you're about to enter.Since the attacks of September the 11th, 2001, this Academy hasestablished a new Combating Terrorism Center, a new minor in TerrorismStudies, with new courses in counter-insurgency operations,intelligence, and homeland security, and winning the peace. West Pointhas expanded Arabic language training, has hired new faculty withexpertise in Islamic law and culture, brought in members of the 101stand 82nd Airborne to train you and share their experiences on the frontlines in Iraq and Afghanistan.And each of you endured gruelingSaturday training events where you practiced identifying IEDs,conducting convoy operations and running checkpoints. By changing tomeet the new threats, West Point has given you the skills you will needin Afghanistan and Iraq -- and for the long war with Islamic radicalismthat will be the focus of much of your military careers.This Academy went through a similar period of change six decades ago, atthe end of World War II. Some of West Point's greatest graduates -- menlike Eisenhower and Bradley, Patton and MacArthur -- had just broughtour nation victory in Europe and Japan. Yet, almost immediately, a newthreat appeared on the horizon -- the threat of Imperial Communism. AndWest Point, like America, had to prepare for a long struggle with a newadversary, one that would require the determination of generations ofAmericans.In the early years of that struggle, freedom's victory was not obviousor assured. In 1947, communist forces were threatening Greece andTurkey, the reconstruction of Germany was faltering, mass starvation wassetting in across Europe. In 1948, Czechoslovakia fell to communism;France and Italy appeared to be headed for the same fate, and Berlin wasblockaded on the orders of Josef Stalin. In 1949, the Soviet Unionexploded a nuclear weapon, giving our new enemy the ability to bringcatastrophic destruction to our homeland. And weeks later, communistforces won their revolution in China, and claimed the world's mostpopulous nation for communism.And in the summer of 1950, seven NorthKorean divisions poured across the border into South Korea, marking thestart of the first direct military clash of the Cold War. All of thistook place in just the first five years following World War II.Fortunately, we had a President named Harry Truman, who recognized thethreat, took bold action to confront it, and laid the foundation forfreedom's victory in the Cold War.President Truman set a clear doctrine.In a speech to Congress, hecalled for military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey, and announceda new doctrine that would guide American policy throughout the Cold War.He told the Congress: "It must be the policy of the United States tosupport free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armedminorities or by outside pressures." With this new doctrine, and withthe aid to back it up, Greece and Turkey were saved from communism, andthe Soviet expansion into Southern Europe and the Middle East wasstopped.President Truman acted boldly to confront new adversaries. When Stalintested America's resolve with a blockade of Berlin, President Trumanlaunched the Berlin Airlift, delivering supplies to the besieged city,forcing the Red Army to back down, and securing the freedom of WestBerlin. Later, Truman again responded to communist aggression withresolve, fighting a difficult war in Korea. The Korean War saw manysetbacks, and missteps and terrible losses. More than 54,000 Americansgave their lives in Korea. Yet, in the end, communist forces werepushed back to the 38th Parallel -- and the freedom of South Korea wassecure.President Truman acted boldly to help transform old adversaries intodemocratic allies. In Asia, his administration led the effort to helpJapan change from a nation that had launched a surprise attack onAmerica into a thriving democracy and a steadfast ally. In Europe, helaunched the Marshall Plan, an unprecedented effort to help Germany andother nations in Europe recover from war and establish strongdemocracies. The Marshall Plan cost about $100 billion in today'sdollars, and it helped to save Western Europe from Soviet tyranny, andled to the emergence of democratic allies that remain indispensable tothe cause of peace today.President Truman transformed our alliances to deal with new dangers.After World War II, he led the effort to form the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization, the first peacetime alliance in American history. NATOserved as a military bulwark against communist aggression, and helpedgive us a Europe that is now whole, free, and at peace.President Truman positioned U.S. forces to deal with new threats.Despite enormous pressure to bring our troops home after World War II,he kept American forces in Germany to deter Soviet aggression, and keptU.S. forces in Japan as a counterweight to communist China. Togetherwith the deployment of U.S. forces to Korea, the military footprintTruman established on two continents has remained virtually unchanged tothis day, and has served as the foundation for security in Europe and inthe Pacific.President Truman launched a sweeping reorganization of the federalgovernment to prepare it for a new struggle. Working with Congress, hecreated the Department of Defense, established the Air Force as aseparate military service, formed the National Security Council at theWhite House, and founded the Central Intelligence Agency to ensureAmerica had the best intelligence on Soviet threats.President Truman made clear that the Cold War was an ideologicalstruggle between tyranny and freedom. At a time when some still wantedto wish away the Soviet threat, he brought Winston Churchill toMissouri, to deliver his famous "Iron Curtain" speech.And he issued apresidential directive called NSC-68, which declared that America facedan enemy "animated by a new fanatic faith" and determined to impose itsideology on the entire world. This directive called on the UnitedStates to accept the responsibility of world leadership, and defend thecause of freedom and democracy -- and that's exactly what the UnitedStates did.By the actions he took, the institutions he built, the alliances heforged and the doctrines he set down, President Truman laid thefoundations for America's victory in the Cold War. As President Trumanput it towards the end of his presidency, "When history says that myterm of office saw the beginning of the Cold War, it will also say thatin those eight years we set the course that can win it." His leadershippaved the way for subsequent Presidents from both political parties --men like Eisenhower and Kennedy and Reagan -- to confront and eventuallydefeat the Soviet threat. (Applause.)Today, at the start of a new century, we are again engaged in a warunlike any our nation has fought before -- and like Americans inTruman's day, we are laying the foundations for victory. (Applause.)The enemies we face today are different in many ways from the enemy wefaced in the Cold War.In the Cold War, we deterred Soviet aggressionthrough a policy of mutually assured destruction. Unlike the SovietUnion, the terrorist enemies we face today hide in caves and shadows --and emerge to attack free nations from within.The terrorists have noborders to protect, or capital to defend. They cannot be deterred --but they will be defeated. (Applause.) America will fight theterrorists on every battlefront, and we will not rest until this threatto our country has been removed. (Applause.)While there are real differences between today's war and the Cold War,there are also many important similarities. Like the Cold War, we arefighting the followers of a murderous ideology that despises freedom,crushes all dissent, has territorial ambitions, and pursues totalitarianaims. Like the Cold War, our enemies are dismissive of free peoples,claiming that men and women who live in liberty are weak and lack theresolve to defend our way of life. Like the Cold War, our enemiesbelieve that the innocent can be murdered to serve a political vision.And like the Cold War, they're seeking weapons of mass murder that wouldallow them to deliver catastrophic destruction to our country.If ourenemies succeed in acquiring such weapons, they will not hesitate to usethem, which means they would pose a threat to America as great as theSoviet Union.Against such an enemy, there is only one effective response: We willnever back down, we will never give in, and we will never acceptanything less than complete victory. (Applause.)Like previous generations, history has once again called America togreat responsibilities, and we're answering history's call withconfidence. We're confronting new dangers with new determination, andlaying the foundations for victory in the war on terror.In this new war, we have set a clear doctrine.After the attacks ofSeptember the 11th, I told a joint session of Congress: America makesno distinction between the terrorists and the countries that harborthem. If you harbor a terrorist, you are just as guilty as theterrorists and you're an enemy of the United States of America.(Applause.) In the months that followed, I also made clear theprinciples that will guide us in this new war:America will not wait tobe attacked again. We will confront threats before they fullymaterialize. We will stay on the offense against the terrorists,fighting them abroad so we do not have to face them here at home.(Applause.)In this new war, we have acted boldly to confront new adversaries. Whenthe Taliban regime in Afghanistan tested America's resolve, refusing ourjust demands to turn over the terrorists who attacked America, weresponded with determination. Coalition forces drove the Taliban frompower, liberated Afghanistan, and brought freedom to 25 million people.(Applause.) In Iraq, another tyrant chose to test America's resolve.Saddam Hussein was a dictator who had pursued and used weapons of massdestruction, he sponsored terrorists, invaded his neighbors, abused hispeople, deceived international inspectors, and refused to comply withmore than a dozen United Nations resolutions. (Applause.) When theUnited Nations Security Council gave him one final chance to discloseand disarm, or face serious consequences, he refused to take t